Posted on

Welding Process and Parameter Control of Carport Brackets

In the construction of a carport, the bracket is the basic supporting structure of the entire device. The welding of the bracket directly affects the overall stability and durability of the carport. Different bracket materials have different requirements for the welding process. This article starts with the carport materials and explains in detail the corresponding specific welding methods and parameters.

Carport Material Factors

1. Material type

Common materials include steel, aluminum, composite materials, etc. Steel tools have the characteristics of high strength but easy to corrode. Aluminum is lighter and more corrosion-resistant, requiring precise welding techniques due to its lower melting point.

Material TypeCommon Welding TechniquesReason for Choice
SteelGas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW/MIG)Efficient for thicker materials, provides strong welds.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW/Stick)Suitable for outdoor conditions, versatile for various steel types.
AluminumGas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG)Offers precision and control, ideal for thin aluminum.
Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding (Pulsed MIG)Reduces distortion, good for thicker aluminum sections.
Composite MaterialsAdhesive BondingAvoids heat damage, suitable for temperature-sensitive composites.
Friction Stir WeldingEffective for joining without melting, preserves material properties.

2. Material Properties

Properties such as melting point, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient also have a great impact on welding. High melting point materials such as steel require higher welding temperatures, while materials with high thermal conductivity such as aluminum require effective thermal management to prevent deformation during welding.

Material PropertyCommon Welding TechniquesReason for Choice
High Melting PointGas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG)Provides high heat input, suitable for materials with high melting points.
High Thermal ConductivityPulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding (Pulsed MIG)Manages heat distribution, prevents warping in conductive materials.
Coefficient of Thermal ExpansionControlled Short Circuit MIGMinimizes heat input, reduces thermal distortion in materials with high expansion rates.

3. Material Thickness and Shape

Material FeatureCommon Welding TechniquesReason for Choice
Thick MaterialsSubmerged Arc Welding (SAW)Provides deep penetration, suitable for thick sections.
Complex ShapesGas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG)Allows for precise welding in intricate areas.

4. Material Surface Condition

Surface ConditionCommon Welding TechniquesReason for Choice
Oxidized SurfacesGas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG)TIG welding is less sensitive to oxidation.
Oily or Contaminated SurfacesPlasma Arc Welding (PAW)Provides high energy density for deep cleaning and penetration.

Welding Parameters

Welding parameters play a critical role in determining the quality and strength of the welds in carport construction. Precise control of these parameters is essential to ensure optimal welding outcomes. This section presents a detailed overview of key welding parameters, each accompanied by specific data, organized in a table format for clarity.

Welding ProcessMaterialMaterial ThicknessCurrentVoltageWelding SpeedShielding GasNotes
MIG (GMAW)Steel1-12 mm

100-250 Amps

18-28 Volts

15-25 cm/min75% Argon + 25% CO2Versatile for various steel types.
TIG (GTAW)Aluminum0.5-6 mm

80-150 Amps

10-20 Volts

5-15 cm/min100% ArgonPrecision welding for thin aluminum sheets.
Stick (SMAW)Steel4-12 mm

90-200 Amps

20-30 Volts

8-12 cm/minN/ASuitable for outdoor and thicker materials.
Flux-Cored (FCAW)Steel1-8 mm

120-200 Amps

16-24 Volts

10-20 cm/minCO2 or CO2-rich mixGood for outdoor welding, no external gas needed.
Pulsed MIGAluminum2-10 mm

100-200 Amps

18-26 Volts

10-20 cm/min75% Argon + 25% CO2Reduces heat input, minimizes warping.
Submerged Arc (SAW)SteelOver 10 mm

200-600 Amps

28-32 Volts

8-15 cm/minFluxDeep penetration for thick sections.
Friction Stir WeldingAluminum Alloys3-12 mmN/AN/AN/AN/ANo melting involved, ideal for aluminum alloys.
Gas Welding (Oxy-Acetylene)Steel, CopperUp to 6 mmN/AN/AN/AOxygen + AcetyleneTraditional method, suitable for repair work.

Methods of Welding Parameter Control

Pre-Welding Preparation

Equipment and Process Selection: The choice of equipment and process depends on the material’s properties. For instance, for steel, MIG welding might be preferred, requiring a welding current of 100-250 Amps and voltage of 18-28 Volts.

Surface Cleaning and Treatment: This involves removing contaminants like oil, rust, or dust. For aluminum, which is prone to oxidation, a chemical treatment using an etching solution might be necessary to prepare the surface.

Parameter Adjustment During Welding

Current and Voltage Adjustment: For steel, a higher current (100-250 Amps) and voltage (18-28 Volts) are typically used. In contrast, aluminum welding might require lower settings, around 80-150 Amps and 10-20 Volts, due to its lower melting point.

Speed and Temperature Control: The welding speed for steel can be around 15-25 cm/min, while for aluminum, it might be slower, around 5-15 cm/min, to allow proper fusion. The temperature should be managed to avoid overheating, especially for aluminum, which has a lower melting point around 660°C.

Choice of Shielding Gas and Electrode: For steel, a mixture of Argon and CO2 is commonly used as a shielding gas. For aluminum, pure Argon is preferred. The electrode choice should match the material, like ER70S-6 for steel and ER4043 for aluminum.

Post-Welding Inspection

Visual and Non-Destructive Testing: Inspect welds for uniformity and lack of defects. For steel, magnetic particle testing can be used, while for aluminum, ultrasonic testing might be more appropriate.

Mechanical Testing: This includes tensile testing and bend tests. For steel, a tensile strength of around 400-550 MPa is expected, while for aluminum, it’s around 110-310 MPa.


For thick steel plates, a higher welding current (around 150-250 Amps) and voltage (20-30 Volts) are recommended. The speed should be adjusted to ensure deep penetration, typically around 10-20 cm/min.

To prevent warping in aluminum, use lower heat input by reducing the welding current (around 80-150 Amps) and voltage (10-20 Volts). Also, implement a slower welding speed and use intermittent welding techniques to allow cooling.

No, composite materials often require different techniques. Adhesive bonding or mechanical fastening is typically used instead of traditional welding, as excessive heat can damage these materials.

For steel, mechanical cleaning to remove rust and scale, followed by a solvent wipe to remove grease, is effective. For aluminum, chemical etching is often necessary to remove the oxide layer and improve adhesion.

For steel, a mixture of Argon and CO2 is commonly used. For aluminum, pure Argon is preferred to prevent oxidation and ensure a clean weld.

Common techniques include visual inspection, ultrasonic testing for aluminum, and magnetic particle testing for steel. These help identify any internal or surface defects in the welds.

Thicker materials require higher welding currents and slower speeds to ensure adequate heat penetration and proper fusion of the joint.

Toggle ContenIn outdoor conditions, especially for steel, use SMAW (Stick welding) or flux-cored welding to protect against wind disrupting the shielding gas. Also, ensure the surface is dry and free from environmental contaminants.t

Preheating can be beneficial for thick steel sections to prevent rapid cooling, which can lead to cracking. For aluminum, preheating is generally not required due to its high thermal conductivity.

Yes, incorrect parameters can lead to issues like spatter, poor bead shape, and discoloration, especially in materials like aluminum. Proper parameter settings are crucial for a clean, aesthetically pleasing weld.